Menene Sialic Acid?

2023-10-19 11:45:40

Sialic acid wani nau'in facin sukari ne wanda aka kafa shi sosai a cikin yanayi kuma yana wasa wurare daban-daban a cikin tsarin halitta. Yawaita akan harsashi tantanin halitta, sialic acid yana shiga cikin sadarwar salula, aiki mai rauni, da dangantakar pathogen. Wannan abun da ke ciki zai ba da bayyani na sialic acid, bincika tsarin sinadarai, tushen halitta, ayyuka na halitta, zarge-zargen lafiya, da bincike mai mahimmanci na kimiyya da ke da alaƙa da wannan sukari mai ban sha'awa. An mayar da hankali kan bayyana mahimmancin sialic acid masu yawa a cikin ilimin halitta da lafiyar mutum.

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Fahimtar Sialic Acid

Sialic acid, wanda kuma aka sani da N-acetylneuraminic acid(Neu5Ac), sukarin monosaccharide ne na dangin motes da ake kira sialic acid. A sinadarai, ya ƙunshi tsarin kashin bayan carbon tara tare da ƙungiyoyin ayyuka na hydroxyl, acetyl, da carboxyl da yawa. Sunan" sialic" ya fito daga kalmar Helenanci sialos ma'ana bawa, kamar yadda sialic acid aka fara gano shi a cikin mucin salivary na bovine.

Sialic acid masu kama da tsari an saita su a fadin yankin dabbar. Sama da bambance-bambance daban-daban 50 suna rayuwa, amma N-acetylneuraminic acid shine nau'in gama gari da aka kafa a cikin sel masu mutuwa. Sialic acid An haɗa shi a cikin cytosol daga metabolites na glucose kuma yana ɗaure zuwa ƙarshen sarƙoƙi na sukari akan glycoproteins da glycolipids waɗanda ke ƙawata harsashi tanta. Waɗannan motes na sialylated sune tsakiya ga yawancin alaƙar masu karɓa.

Halin Halitta na Sialic Acid

Sialic acid foda An bayyana shi sosai a cikin kyallen jikin mutum da na dabba:

Glycoproteins da Gangliosides - Sialic acid yana rufe sarƙoƙin glycan na membrane glycoproteins da gangliosides, yana ba da gudummawa ga glycocalyx akan saman tantanin halitta.

- Sirri guda biyu - Yana da yawa a cikin miya, madarar nono, bile, da ruwan sha.

Serum Glycoproteins Sialic acid yana canza sunadaran jini kamar immunoglobulins, transferrin, da haptoglobin.
- Tawul ɗin Kwakwalwa- Tawul ɗin ƙwaƙwalwa yana ƙunshe da babban hankali na gangliosides masu arzikin sialic acid waɗanda ke daidaita neurotransmission.

Faɗin rarraba sialic acid yana nuna mahimmancin ilimin halitta iri-iri. An kiyasta cewa mutane suna hada sama da gram 1 kowace rana, tare da saurin jujjuyawar sifofin sialil.


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Ayyuka da Muhimmancin Sialic Acid

Sialic acid yana da hannu a cikin tsararrun mahimman ayyukan nazarin halittu:

Ma'amalar Cell-Cell - Abubuwan Anti-gane na sialic acid suna daidaita mannewar tantanin halitta da daidaita ma'amalar ƙwayoyin rigakafi.

Sigina - Sialic acid suna tsaka-tsaki fitarwa da watsa siginar kwayoyin tsakanin sel.

Cognition - Gangliosides dauke da sialic acid yana tasiri neuroplasticity, koyo, da ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya.

Kaucewa Immune - Kwayoyin cuta da ciwace-ciwace suna amfani da sialic acid don guje wa martanin rigakafi.

Mucosal Barrier - Sialic acid mai daɗaɗɗa yana kiyaye membranes cell membranes a cikin ɓoye na mucosa.

A taƙaice, sialic acid yana sarrafa yawancin mahimman hanyoyin ilimin lissafin jiki da hanyoyin cututtukan da suka shafi sadarwar salula, haɓakawa, rigakafi, da cuta.

Tasirin Lafiya na Sialic Acid

An danganta canjin sialic acid magana zuwa jihohi da yawa na korafi

Ci gaban Ciwon Ciwon daji- Ƙarfafawar sialic acid yana ba da gudummawa ga abubuwan da ke faruwa a cikin cututtukan daji kamar carcinoma, carcinoma, da ciwon daji na ovarian.

Kumburi- Sialic acid yana haɗuwa a cikin wasu yanayi na tashin hankali na al'ada kamar asma, gunaguni na hanji, da rheumatoid arthritis.

Kamuwa da cuta- Gane sialic acid ta hanyar ƙwayoyin cuta yana sauƙaƙe cututtukan ƙwayoyin cuta ta ƙwayoyin cuta, ƙwayoyin cuta, da protozoa.

Autoimmunity- Kwayoyin rigakafi da tsarin sialic acid suna shiga cikin wasu cututtuka na autoimmune.

Neurodegeneration- Ganglioside ragewa da jini sialylation suna hade da neurodegenerative yanayi kamar Alzheimer's.

Ƙungiyoyin da ke tsakanin aberrant sialylation da pathophysiology na mutuwa suna ƙarfafa aikin asibiti na sialic acid.

Binciken Kimiyya da Shaida

Mahimman binciken kimiyya masu alaƙa da sialic acid:

- madarar mutum oligosaccharides dauke da sialic acid yana inganta mulkin mallaka tare da Bifidobacteria masu amfani a cikin jarirai masu shayarwa. Wannan yana haɓaka rigakafi a farkon rayuwa.

- Mice ba su iya haɗa sialic acid suna nuna rashin ilmantarwa, ƙwaƙwalwa, da neurogenesis yana nuna muhimmiyar rawar da yake takawa a cikin tsarin juyayi.

- Cire sialic acid daga kwayoyin cutar kansa ta amfani da sialidase enzymes yana taimakawa wajen fallasa su ga ganowar rigakafi, wakiltar wata hanyar warkewa mai yuwuwa.

- Cututtukan mura suna amfani da sunadaran hemagglutinin don ɗaure sialic acid akan ƙwayoyin runduna azaman matakin asali na tsarin kamuwa da cuta.

- Yanayin sialic acid yana haɓaka a cikin nau'in ciwon sukari na 2, yana nuna kumburin tsari da juriya na insulin.

Gabaɗaya, ɗimbin bincike na ci gaba da buɗe injina da mahimmancin asibiti na sialic acid a cikin lafiya da gunaguni.

Abubuwan Halitta na Sialic Acid

Abubuwan abinci na sialic acid sun haɗa da:

- Kiwo - madara, cuku, yogurt, furotin whey

- Qwai - Ya ƙunshi gangliosides tare da sialic acid.

- Nama - Jan nama kamar naman sa da naman alade.

- Abincin teku - Kifi, kifin kifi suna da wadataccen tushe.

- Kaji - Kaza da naman turkey.

- Colostrum - Matsayi mai girma a cikin nono na farko.

Ko da yake ana samun sialic acid a cikin abinci na dabba, wasu kayan lambu da 'ya'yan itatuwa kuma suna ba da adadi kaɗan. Cin abinci mai gina jiki na sialic acid na iya tallafawa aikin rigakafi, fahimta, da lafiyar rayuwa.

Menene aikin sialic acid?

Sialic acid foda yana da manyan ayyuka na ilimin halitta da yawa:

- Yana rufe wuraren tantancewa akan saman tantanin halitta don kariya daga harin rigakafi. Wannan yana hana kunnawa da bai dace ba da kuma phagocytosis.

- Yana daidaita sadarwar tantanin halitta da mannewa ta hanyar hulɗa tare da zaɓaɓɓu da siglecs. Wannan yana daidaita matakai kamar kumburi, axon myelination, da ƙari metastasis.

- Yana aiki a matsayin mai karɓa don ƙwayoyin cuta da gubobi, yana sauƙaƙe ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta da shiga cikin ƙwayoyin cuta yayin kamuwa da cuta.

- Yana ba da daidaiton tsari da hydration zuwa yadudduka na gamsai da ke kare saman epithelial a cikin idanu, huhu, fili na GI da tsarin haihuwa.

Gabaɗaya, sialic acid yana sarrafa yawancin abubuwan gano wayar salula na tsakiya ga rigakafi, siginar tantanin halitta, haɓakawa, da hulɗar ƙwayoyin cuta.

Shin sialic acid furotin ne?

A'a, sialic acid ba furotin bane. Yana da facin sukari na monosaccharide wanda ke jingina zuwa ƙarshen ƙarshen sarƙoƙi na glycan akan glycoproteins da glycolipids waɗanda aka kafa akan bawoyi na sel da cikin apkins. Duk da yake ba furotin da kanta ba, sialic acid yana canza glycoproteins da yawa don canza tsarin su da aikin su. Hakanan yana haɗuwa da sphingosine don samar da gangliosides, nau'in glycolipid da yawa da ake samu a cikin membranes na jijiyoyi.

Menene wani suna ga sialic acid?

Sialic acid kuma ana samunsa da N-acetylneuraminic acid ko Neu5Ac. Wannan 9- carbon monosaccharide an fara gano shi a cikin mucin salivary gland, wanda ya haifar da asalin sunansa daga kalmar Helenanci don bawa-"sialos". Za a iya amfani da sharuddan sialic acid da N-acetylneuraminic acid a musaya don alaƙa da babban nau'i da aka saita a cikin sel masu mutuwa da apkins.

Menene misalin sialic acid?

N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) shine mafi yawan nau'in sialic acid da ake samu a cikin mutane. Sauran misalan sun haɗa da:

- N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) - babban nau'i na biyu, ya bambanta da kwayar oxygen daya.

- Deaminoneuramine (KDN) - rasa ƙungiyar N-acetyl.

O-Acetylneuraminic acid - ƙarin gyara rukunin O-acetyl.

Sama da bambance-bambancen sialic acid sama da 50 sun wanzu a yanayi, yawanci suna bambanta a cikin ƙungiyoyin hydroxyl, acetyl, ko glycosidic waɗanda ke ɗaure zuwa ainihin tsarin carbon 9. Waɗannan ƙananan bambance-bambance suna tasiri ga kaddarorin halittu da kuma sanin nau'ikan sialic acid daban-daban.

Menene sialic acid ya fi kowa a cikin mutane?

N-acetylneuraminic acid(Neu5Ac) shine babban nau'i na sialic acid wanda aka bayyana a cikin sel masu mutuwa da apkins. Yana lissafin sama da 90 na sialic acid da aka gano a cikin jikin mutum. Sauran ƙananan nau'ikan sun haɗa da N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc, har zuwa 4) da O-acetylneuraminic acid (ƙasa da 1).

Kammalawa

Sialic acid wani nau'in ciwon sukari ne mai aiki da yawa da ake samu a ko'ina a cikin kyallen jikin kashin baya da ɓoye. Siffofin sinadarai na musamman da kuma sanya dabarun sa akan glycans tantanin halitta suna yin tasiri iri-iri na abubuwan gano kwayoyin halitta waɗanda ke jagorantar rigakafi, haɓakawa, siginar tantanin halitta, da ci gaban cuta. Ci gaba da bincike yana ci gaba da ba da haske game da ayyukan ilimin halitta na sialic acid da damar warkewa masu alaƙa. Ingantacciyar fahimtar wannan saura na sukari ya yi alkawarin ba da damar ci gaba a cikin glycobiology da bioomedicine.

Hubei Sanxin Biotechnology Co., Ltd. ya haɗu da bincike da haɓakawa, samarwa da tallace-tallace na shekaru masu yawa. Mu ne abin dogaronku Sialic acid foda dillali. Za mu iya ba da sabis na musamman azaman buƙatarku.

email: nancy@sanxinbio.com


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